The relationship between lead-free solder joint’s damage and signal …

The relationship between lead-free solder joint’s damage and signal transmission property is a hot-spot problem for a long time in the field of today’s electronic packaging research. In this paper, under direct current (DC), the failure properties of single lead-free solder joint were explored with in situ resistance strain measurement under three different load conditions including shear creep testing at room temperature, shear creep testing at 125℃and shear creep testing during thermal cycle between 40℃and 125℃by a tailor-made electronic testing system. And the quantificational relationship between resistance strain and damage was deducted. The results show that resistance strain curves include a long time linear period and a shorter time exponential period. The resistance strain value at the critical point of the two periods is about 0.05. And the time of the exponential period accounts for 20% to 30% of solder joint’s life. Under thermal cycle, the critical point of 40℃curve lags behind the 125℃curve, and the lagged time accounts for 8% of the solder joint’s life. At high frequencies, the resistance, inductive reactance and capacitive reactance with solder joint degradation were investigated. And, transmission properties of signal through the damaged solder joint were simulated. The results show that when signal transmits through cracked solder joint, the output signal shows ring phenomenon. With the increase of solder joint’s crack, the amplitude of the ring increases exponentially. Comparing the DC resistance curve and ring amplitude curve, it is found that the ring amplitude curve increases in response to cracking of the solder joint earlier than DC resistance curve, which indicates that signal transmission properties offers an improved means of sensing solder joint degradation. Besides, signal transmission properties with different frequencies were simulated when the signal transmitted through solder joint with a crack length of 0.05mm. The results show that with the increase of the signal frequency, the output signal show ring phenomenon. And the higher of the frequency, the larger of the output signal ring amplitude. This clearly shows that higher frequency signals are more sensitive to the degradation of the solder joint.

Cultural Filtration in Literary Translation

The development of a culture depends on its capability to absorb new knowledge and values from other cultures. With translation being a major way of cultural communication, how to deal with cultural heterogeneity in translation becomes a critical issue, which is what cultural filtration basically tackles. In this sense, cultural filtration is inevitable as well as indispensible in the cross-cultural communication, and it always features in cross-cultural translation, especially literary translation.The recognition of the concept of cultural filtration is closely related to the rise of reception aesthetics, a theory of literary criticism that emphasizes the critical role played by readers in the literary communication and appreciation. The important ideas of reception aesthetics, such as the way of existence of literary works, horizon of expectations and fusion of horizons, can strongly support the argument that a translator must cater to the needs of readers in translation, and cultural filtration, with its root cause being cultural differences, is always orientated to the requirements of TL readers in the translation activity. As a result, analysis of a translation from the angle of reception aesthetics may cast light on the understanding of cultural filtration. Qingyi(《青衣》)is a novelette containing abundant cultural information, literary allusions and special terms of Jingju (Peking Opera) in particular. Accordingly, the translators have conducted much cultural filtration in their translation–The Moon Opera. This thesis is therefore an in-depth exploration of the translation of Qingyi focusing on the strategies used by the translators to realize cultural filtration and the consequent effects on the reception of TL readers with the guidance of the important concepts of reception aesthetics. Ultimately, conclusions about the characteristics, causes, aspects, strategies of cultural filtration are drawn and hopefully, this endeavor may provide some help for future study on this challenging issue.

Study on Triphosgene in the Preparation of Aliphatic Acyl Chlorides and Acylthioureas

This thesis includes three chapters.Chapter 1: A brief review for the research in synthesis of acyl chlorides and acylthioueas in recent yearsThis chapter is a brief review for the character and synthetic methods of triphosgene、conventional synthetic methods of acyl chlorides、the application of triphosgene in the preparation of acyl chlorides in recent years、the application and synthetic methods of acylthioueas.Chapter 2: New technology studies on producing aliphatic acyl chloride using triphosgeneThree aliphatic acyl chlorides were synthesized by exploration of best reative conditions such as univariate analysis, orthog onal test, optimization design, using triphosgene as chlorinating agents. The products’purity were determined by the gas chromatography.Chapter 3: Simple synthesis, crystal structure and biological activities of N-Isononanoyl- N’-arylthioureasA series of new N-Isononanoyl-N’-arylthiourea compounds were synthesized simply rapidly and high efficiently by serial reactions of triphosgene, isononanoic acid, potassium thiocyanate and aromatic amines, under solvent-free conditions, and confirmed by IR, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra. The crystal structure of compound 4g was determined by X-ray single crystal diffraction analysis. The preliminary biological activity tests show that some of the title compounds have some regulating activities for the growth of rape.

The Study on the Relationship between Occupational Stress and the Ability to Work in Video Display Terminal (VDT)

Objective: Using AET analysis on Video Display Terminal (VDT) operations, finding that exist in the operation of the main occupational stress factors, while analysis of VDT workers in different individuals, groups of occupational stress response, and appropriate, targeted interventions in order to achieve to reduce their occupational stress, the purpose of enhancing the ability to work. Methods: Uses the AET analysis to find a VDT operator of occupational stress factors, and then through stratified cluster random sampling method, taking bank employees, agents, civil servants and other VDT workers conducted a questionnaire survey on 1,100 people, VDT operators understand the level of tension and the impact on the ability to work.. Results: 1 This questionnaire survey returns-ratio reaches 91.55%. 2 AET analysis value when the boundaries between 20 and 21, eight types of work resulted in two cluster groups. Architectural design Engineering staff, planning the production of digital video division, bank liquidation, and other banking business for the first category, operator, the operator and bank saving, teachers and civil servants for the second category; 3 VDT workers of different gender comparison of occupational stress, work stress index, stress index, a lack of organizational support and organizational strength to support the existence of a lack of statistical difference frequency; different VDT workers seniority comparison of occupational stress, work stress index, the frequency of job strain Working pressure index, index, as well as lack of organization in the absence of the frequency difference; female VDT operators with the back of the neck and shoulder injuries the Department detection rate were higher than men, and back injuries have a significant difference; in different length of service, the service≥5 years of skeletal muscle damage is higher than the detection rate <5 years of service back in the detection rate of injury, neck and shoulder injuries and the existence of significant difference; different levels of tension between the Social support group for comparison, Total support and the availability of support there is significant difference; the tension level in different groups of musculoskeletal injury in the comparison of detection rate had no significant statistical difference; 4 Length of service between different work ability index of the existence of significant difference; in three different levels of occupational stress group compared with the situation of the working abilities of statistical differences, the pair wise comparisons have statistics difference too; the ability to work at different levels of VDT operators musculoskeletal injuries of comparison, there are significant difference among the ability to work three levels; 5 The complexity, mobility and working ability become the inverse correlation, but the task control, participation, the timing control and cooperation compactness and working ability become just related; The support total score and subjective support with become to the support exploitability and working ability index just related; The neck shoulder and waist back myo- meat skeleton damage and working ability become the inverse correlation; The job seniority and service, neck and shoulder muscle injury, back muscle injury, the work tense index and working pressure index and organization support to lack the index, the combined effect of the ability to work. Conclusion: AET analysis of eight types of work resulted in two cluster groups, respectively 27 and 28 stress factors, two types of occupational stress factors of work are greater than the maximum score value of 80% of the main. ISTA analysis, the possibility of cooperation, the task of dangerous nature, complexity, and the exchange of the possibility of such factors as changes in the operator of occupational stress have a greater impact. Feminine tense degree compares the male to be high, the job seniority short VDT work tense degree is high, feminine skeleton muscle damage detection rate is higher than the male, the job seniority long skeleton muscle damage detection rate is high; The tense degree is higher its working ability to be lower; And the working ability low VDT work skeleton muscle damage detection rate is high complexity of change and the ability to work as a negative correlation, and mission control, participation, time control and co-operation and the ability to work closely positively correlated; Social support and work ability index was positively correlated; skeletal muscle injury and the ability to work as a negative correlation; service, neck and shoulder muscle injury, back muscle injury, job strain index, stress index and the lack of organizations to support the index, the combined effects of factor in the ability to work.

Research and Application of Subjects and Objects for One Verb in Mechanical Product Design

The thesis applies application of natural language understanding system into the product design and analyses the subjects and objects for one verb subordinate to user requirements which are based on the language system. The reasons are as follows. First of all, it can therefore transform into the conceptual design to fulfill the customers’ requirements in auto in basis of the features in natural language understanding. The next, it will provide sufficient support for the design of the follow-up and enhance the efficiency of product design.Firstly, it tells the natural language understanding of the product design should be mainly based on knowledge, according to natural language understanding features of product design. Secondly, this paper introduces several currently common knowledge representation methods and semantic analysis methods. Conceptual dependency theory is chosen as an important complementarity to the method based on knowledge. Thirdly, starting from the verb itself, this study on the structure of subjects and objects for one verb is classified. And combining with the concept of dependency theory, parallel relationship and ambiguity phenomena have been elaborated described. Fourthly, discuss how to deal with the structure of subjects and objects for one verb in the natural language understanding system on the basis of the above work. According to analyzing of parallel relationship and ambiguity phenomenon, the natural language understanding system can understand and achieve it. Lastly, semantic analysis of natural language understanding is applied to requirement analysis archetypal system for the design of coupling. The subjects and objects for one verb in user requirements is understood and analyzed. With other models running, the system runs well after debug.

Measuring Operational Risk Based on the Bavesian-Buhlmann Methods

In recent years,due to the operational risk loss events occur frequently and make a huge amountof loss in the field of domestic and foreign commercial banks,making the operational risk becomeone of the main risks facing the banking industry.Following the2004New Basel Capital Accordtake operational risk into the framework of the provision for capital grant,international and domesticBanks pay more attention of the operating risk measurement and Management. Operational riskmeasurement is the basis for operational risk Management, only accurately measure of operatingrisk can be effective risk management. At present, the banking sector’s credit risk and market riskmeasurement methods and management has reached a relatively mature stage, the operational riskmeasurement and management has just started.BaselⅡ Accord put forward Basic IndicatorApproach, Standardized Approach, Advanced Measurement Approach. the Advanced MeasurementApproach mainly include Internal Measurement Approaches,Loss Distribution Approach,ExtremeValue Theory,Scorecard Approach,etc. However, due to the lack of China ‘s commercial banksoperational risk loss data accumulated, resulting in the application of these advanced measurementmethod may result in deviations of Economic capital allocation, which led to reduced ability toprevent and control risks. Solve these problems, this paper introduces a Bayesian estimation ofreliability theory, in order to provide a way for the improvement of operational risk measurement.At present, the common operation risk evaluation model is loss distribution method, but thismethod require a higher loss of data,in particular the determination of loss frequency and lossseverity distribution parameters.This article is to solve the lack of loss data,estimate the operationalrisk losses,,and further make bank to reasonably configuration operation risk capital. This paperwith the four major state-owned Banks overall as the research object, collecting the1994-2009years to operation risk loss data as sample, and of the state-owned Banks internal fraud losses totallosses events do empirical analysis.This article through the two aspects to solve the problem ofinsufficient data in operation risk measure.First, the introduction of Bayesian inference to estimatethe parameters in the distribution of loss frequency and loss, combined with Monte Carlosimulation VaR technique to estimate the operational risk of internal fraud, and secondly, in theconfiguration of the operational risk capital, the introduction of the Buhlmann credibility models,mixed internal data (state-owned banks ‘own data), and external data (data of non-state-ownedbanks), by increasing the sample data to accurately estimate and reduce operational risk economiccapital, to further improve the liquidity of commercial banks’ capital.

Research on Impact of RMB Equilibrium Exchange Rate on China’s Agricultural Product Trade

In recent years, appreciation of the RMB exchange rate has repeatedly become the focus of attention at home and abroad. The exchange rate is an important regulator of international trade. China’s foreign trade will inevitably have been affected with the RMB exchange rate changes. Agriculture is the foundation of a country’s economy, the Agricultural trade is an important part of a country’s foreign trade. Since 2004, China’s Agricultural trade balance has transformed into a deficit phase from a continuous surplus phase. The impact of exchange rate on Agricultural product trade also has become a hot issue of domestic and foreign scholars’research. Equilibrium exchange rate, which has become one of the core issues of the exchange rate theories, refers to a exchange rate that enable make the a country’s international income and expese balance.The article firstly estimates the RMB equilibrium exchange rate and extent of exchange rate misalignment of the year from 1983 to 2009 by choosing labor productivity, terms of trade, trade openness, broad money supply and net foreign assets as the Basic Economic fators which affect equilibrium exchange rate and extracting the long-term equilibrium value of each variable with HP filtering method. The calculation results show that in the study year, the RMB real effective exchange rate fluctuates around the RMB equilibrium exchange rate, has been overestimated and underestimated. The overestimated years occur in 1983 to 1985, 1997 to 2003 and 2008, 2009, and the underestimated years occur in 1986 to 1996, 2004 to 2007. Among the years, the most serious overestimated years occurs in 1983 to 1985, the highest rate reached 24.64%, and the most serious underestimated years occurs in 1987 to1988, 1993 to 1994, the highest rate reached 24.17%.Based on estimating the RMB equilibrium exchange rate and by constructing the linear model between the RMB equilibrium exchange rate and China’s agricultural product import and export trade, the article empirically analyses the impact of RMB equilibrium exchange rate on China’s agricultural product import and export trade using cointegration test, error correction model, impulse response function, variance decomposition and Granger causality test methods. The research results show that there are long-term equilibrium relationship between the RMB equilibrium exchange rate and China’s agricultural product import and export trade, but the impact of RMB equilibrium exchange rate on agricultural product import trade is much larger than that on agricultural product export trade. In the long term, the coefficient of elasticity is 1.794710 between the RMB equilibrium exchange rate and China’s agricultural product import trade, and it is 0.354519 between the RMB equilibrium exchange rate and China’s agricultural product export trade. Marshall-Lerner condition is met in China. The contribution of RMB equilibrium exchange rate to agricultural import is more than 40%, but the contribution of RMB equilibrium exchange rate to agricultural import is only 2% to 7%. In the short term, the impact of RMB equilibrium exchange rate on agricultural product import and export trade is not significant.Finally, based on the results of theoretical and empirical analysis, the article puts forward some countermeasures and suggestions such as China should improve the RMB exchange rate formation mechanism, the government should give a reasonable guide to the agricultural products import and export and give appropriate policy support to agricultural products industry, agricultural enterprises should strengthen the awareness of preventing the exchange rate risk and improve their core competitiveness.

The Study of Feng Yuxiang Educational Thoughts Research

Republic of China period, is Chinese recent history of the important transition period. in this period, the political struggle confused, the Economic decline of the Depression. In the ideological and cultural fields, a large number of intellectuals and ambitious people to face the national crisis, a time of national crisis, have put forward their own ideas to save the nation. Salvation theory of Education became one of the important Social trend. Salvation of Education is associated with the rise of the New Culture Movement. It is with the bourgeois and petty bourgeois intellectuals have been promoting, as well as the Western bourgeois Education idea and thought the introduction, under special historical conditions, the gradual emergence of Social thought.Feng Yuxiang is Chinese modern history, the famous political and military figures, has an important influence on the history of the Chinese nation. He spent his whole life. The face of the state of national peril, he resolved to practice their own actions to save the nation’s roads. Feng was Born in poor rural families, his childhood suffering from the pain out of school, on a rare official school year is treasure. In military career, He insisted study diligently. Whenever he saw children out of school, he would extremely painful. He given more attention on community, especially in rural areas of education.It is concerned that the fate of thinking and feeling driven to join the Feng’seducational thougts. He against the Christian West with a soft spot. and believes that the spirit of Christianity, love and hope of three forces, the Christian doctrine and Confucian thought love with the same strain effect. He believes that religion has a role in education can not achieve. So Feng in military training, will Christianity be in the military propaganda. These are the Thought of his education foundation and prerequisite。In education content, Feng insisted patriotism main line, form a set of their own educational Philosophy. In military education, adhere to the spirit of patriotism, pay attention to the military generals of the exemplary role of the military principle of maintaining peace, edit all kinds of educational pamphlets soldiers, improve relations between soldiers and subordinates; Principle in education, we should train personnel pragmatism, focusing on science and technology, cultivating human resources meet the needs of the community at that time; adhere to the moral, intellectual, physical, social skills, all-round development of education policy, focusing on the development of sports, to promote collectivism; carrying forward the national spirit; strengthening vocational education, calling young college students to the school with social, to do socially useful talents. Carry forward the national spirit, strengthen patriotic feelings, actively promoting spiritual education. To cultivate various kinds of survival skills for the purpose of vocational schools. Promote women’s emancipation and gender equality. Women and men not only enjoy the same right to education and the right to participate in social activities, and that women bear responsibility for household Management and education of their children. The implementation of compulsory education and mass education. Include not only school children in poor areas, including compulsory education of children of ethnic minorities in remote areas. Feng also Serbs strict family education, development of<Feng’s clan around> and for the compliance of their children’s education in thrift, simplicity, democracy, freedom of education-oriented, but also very strict.Practice in education, in military training and founders of various schools actively promote vocational education so that every student can master the skills in the community to fend for themselves, reduce the burden on the community; He practicing the implementation of compulsory education, established in various schools, such as military training school, Fenyang Yu Primary School, Yuanshan elementary schools. Founder of Women’s Virtue schools, such as in Beijing, Tongzhou military presence in South Garden and founder of Women’s Virtue, the school hard-working woman, to endure hardships, housekeeper, for the virtues of education to teach children, not only that, but also taught industrial production, so that they acquire certain survival skills.Feng’s Education reflects the pragmatism of Education, to serve the community, education, the principles of fairness, scientific and practical. However, due to the impact of the social environment at that time, there is no scientific. His systemic educational thought, reflected in his outstanding military education and patriotism, pragmatism educational ideas.

Seeking Balance between the Sacred and the Secular

John Updike(1932-2009)is one of the most versatile and prolific writers in the 20th century in the U.S.. His writing covers an extensive range of novels, short stories, poems, essays and literary critiques. He is good at depicting the daily life of middle class, presenting the condition of their existence in secular life. His most well-known works, Rabbit Series, truly and deeply reflect the pessimism and confusion of 20th century American. These four novels represent us a panorama of American Social change and development on value.Though he is usually regarded as a writer of middle class daily life, his deep concern, with religious matters in his writing, distinguishes him from other writers of his time. Updike is a Christian. His literary works are greatly influenced by his religion experience as well as his comprehension of theology. Many of his works show the pictures of contemporary American confusion and quest for the spiritual faith. They are also an embodiment of Updike’s unceasing exploration of human’s faith. His religious view maintains that people should be faithful, which is the premise of self- redemption. Faith is important to save people from spiritual crisis, while religious fanaticism may cause catastrophes to the world. Therefore, people should keep balance between sacred faith and secular life. Studies on Updike’s religious views are mainly about his novels, seldom concern with his short stories. However Updike has always been regarded as a master of short stories which compose an important part of his literary creation. Thus this thesis intends to discuss Updike’s religious views seen from his short stories.The main body of the thesis consists of four parts. The first chapter focuses on the theological, historical and cultural background of Updike’s short stories. The second chapter explores the development of Updike’s religious views by analyzing”The Lovely Troubled Daughters of Our Old Crowd”,”Trust Me”and”My Father’s Tears”. The third chapter intends to analyze another unique religious view of Updike by analyzing different religion experiences of Dan and Mohamed that faith can save people from spiritual crisis, while religious fanaticism may cause catastrophes to the world. The fourth chapter illustrates antagonism and integration of the sacred and the secular in Updike’s”Pigeon Feathers”and”Made in Heaven”, discussing how to pursue a balanced relationship between the two.In Conclusion, the thesis stresses the importance of Updike’s religious views in his writings. In 20th century when the United States develop very fast, people are confused and disillusioned upon the rational request of science and technology. Updike’s short stories with his deep religious concerns and reflections might offer a kind of guidance for people’s spiritual odysseys.

Government Performance Evaluation System and Application Research

As China gradually developed into an open, transparent, democratic and efficientgovernment, all levels of governments carry out exploring in performance evaluation andintroducing advanced experience, technology and tools aboard actively. In recent years, alllevels of governments’ performance evaluation in China get a great achievement inpractice, work attitude and ability to work are increasing, form theories into systemgradually. But we start to study performance evaluation so late, by the impact of theenvironment and the level, there is much to be desired, aspects of practical and theoreticalalso need to improve constantly. In this paper, content includes:Firstly, the main part is elaborating the theory of government performance,introducing the background, significance and the research status at home and abroad of thegovernment performance evaluation studies, and then introduced the concept ofgovernment performance evaluation, characteristics, factors and types which are dividedaccording to different methods of induction.Secondly, the paper introduces the government performance evaluation systemestablished principles and provide the basis for studying the comprehensive evaluation ofgovernment performance in theory. On the basis of Partition the main function areas, thereare three different government performance evaluation index system constructed, and theentropy method were used to make sure weights in evaluation indexes of the threegovernment performance indicators, build a comprehensive evaluation of governmentperformance finally.Thirdly, the comprehensive evaluation model will be applied to test each city inHebei Province. At first, describe the general situation of each city in Hebei Province, thendivided eleven cities into three main functional areas, and in accordance with thecomprehensive evaluation index system which established by municipal government,conduct a comprehensive performance assessment by using gray correlation analysismethod, and analyze those evaluation results.Finally, according to the evaluation results of government performance evaluation inHebei Province, in view of the present situation of the municipal government performance evaluation in Hebei Province and problems and deficiencies in the process, there are somerelated practical measures and recommendations to enhance the performance ofgovernment put forward.