Study on the Preparation and Flocculation Performance of Chitosan and Its Quaternary Ammonium Salt with Different Molecular Weight

Molecular weight is an important molecular parameter of chitosan, chitosans with different molecular weight not only have great variant properties, but also affect the preparation and properties of theirs quaternary ammonium salt directly. As natural and modified macromolecular flocculants, chitosans and theirs quaternary ammonium salt have many merits such as no toxicity, no secondary pollution, convenient application et al. However, the high cost of chitosan and its quaternary ammonium salt and the limitation of inorganic flocculants inhitit theirs use in industrial scale. Therefore, they have attracted considerable interests in the field of chitin chemistry and flocculation chemistry for how to produce the chitosans with suitable molecular weight and theirs quaternary ammonium salt in large-scale, and how to match the inorganic flocculants and natural organic flocculants perfectly.The chitosans with different molecular weight were prepared byγ-ray irradiation degradation technology and modified by introducing quaternary ammonium group. The effect of radiation to chitosan and reaction time, temperature, molar ratio to the degree of substitution of quaternary ammonium salt was studied. The results indicated that: (1) While the radiation dosage increased, the weight average molecular weight of chitosan decreased. (2) As the reaction time, temperature and molar ratio increased, the degree of substitution of quaternary ammonium salt increased gradually. The optimum conditions of preparing quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan were determined as follows: the molar ratio of chitosan to glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride 1:3, reaction temperature 80℃and reaction time 10 h.The flocculation performance of chitosan and quaternary ammonium salt with different molecular weight and their compounds with PAC were studied. The results showed that: (1) the molecular weight of chitosan and quaternary ammonium salt was higher, the flocculation property was better, and especially the quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan that radiated 50 kGy was best. (2) The flocculation performance of 0.5 ppm quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan radiated 50 kGy mixed with 4 ppm PAC showed better within all pH value compared with the mix of 0.7 ppm chitosan with 7 ppm PAC. The effect of 4.5 ppm pure quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan was same as the latter. (3) The flocculation effect of pure chitosan and PAC was influenced evidently by pH, and their good effect at pH=7. (4) The removal effect of several kinds of flocculants on the lead ion (Pb2+) attained above 97% under the optimum conditions. (5) The good flocculation of chitosan, quaternary ammonium salt of chitosan and their compounds with PAC was attributed to the cooperant utilization of the several kinds of mechanisms, such as Electric neutrality, bonding and bridging, chelating et al.The research results not only have references to crossed application of chitin chemistry and inorganic flocculation chemistry, but also provide more effective approach for water treatment with flocculation methods.

A Study of the National Form Issues of the Marxism in China

Marxism formalization is the peoples of europe and the soviet union in the form of marxism into china’s national form. Regard marxist theory is content with the chinese people’s thinking pattern integrate, provided great spiritual motivation and intellectual support to the chinese revolution and construction. Nowadays, Accelerate the process of national formalization of marxism have important and far-reaching significance. Only by constantly review the historical period has been formalized in the development of national experience and lessons, contact Social development in modern china’s realities, to accelerate the process of national formalize Marxism,to accelerate the process of national formalized in marxism, which can be truly universal truth of marxism with actual unity.The first part Provides a summary of national form issues of the Marxism in China. Emphasize the form of marxism in china’s national research purpose and significance, and introduced the dynamics of this study and apply to some of the research methods.The second part explained the connotation of National Form issues of the Marxism. And give a brief of relation between national formalization of marxism and marxism popular. Emphasize the significance of National Form issues of the Marxism.The third part, Elaborated on the may fourth period, yan’an period, the founding of the People’s Republic of China to the cultural revolution, the reform and opening up to now four different historical periods of marxism in national Form issues of the Marxism in China.The fourth chapter explains the historical development of national Form issues of the Marxism in China. From the following three aspects,Firstly, the national development experience of national Form issues of the Marxism in China. secondly,the lesson of national Form issues of the Marxism in China.Finaly,the enlightment of national Form issues of the Marxism in China.

Recongnition Property of Molecularly Imprinted Thiamphenicol and Bovine Hemoglobin on Silica Gel Surface

Molecular imprinting polymer is a kind of fuctional polymer materials,which possess theability of molecular recognition and develops in recent years. This kind of polymer can beused as selective catalyst, solid phase extractant and sensing detector of the chemical sensor,which have a unique function in the field of Medical and Environmental, solid phaseextraction, biosimulation sensor and so on. At the Basic of summerizing the Basic theory ofMolecular imprinting technology, preparation technology and its progeress in appliedresearch, this paper used the surface molecular imprinting method and producted printedpolymers,then discussed the performace of these polymers. The conent as shown follows:(1) Thiamphenicol as a template elements, Methacrylic acid as functional monomer,EDMA as the cross linker, AIBN as the initiator and by the imprinting technology of surfacegrafted molecular to produce the imprinted polymerson the surface of silicon surface. Thendiscussed the performance of this polymer using the static equilibrium and HPLC.Thisimprinted polymer was applied as the stationary phase of high-performance liquidchromatography,as a results, a mixture of structural analogues and a template elements can beseparated baseline by this way. Compared with non-imprinted polymer, this imprintedpolymer have a better adsorpted effection to the sulphone mycin.(2) Using the silica gel modified with aldehyde as a carrier material, bovine hemoglobinas template molecular, acrylamide as the fuctional monomer, N,N’-methylene bisacrylamideas the crosslinker and then by the method of surface molecular imprinting technique toproduce the polymer which a unique recognition ability to the bovine hemoglobin. Discussedthe influence of the elution rate to the imprinting effect of the polymer, evaluation thepolymer by the selective adsorption and Scatchard curve. The results show that molecularlyimprinted polymer have a good adsorption capacity and specific identification to the bovinehemoglobin.(3)Using the silica gel as carrier to produce the molecularly imprinted polymers andevaluation the polymer by the equilibrium absoption and competition experiment. The resultsshowed that the imprinted polymers had a high adsorption efficiency and high selectivity.

Research on Cloning and Expression of the Antimicrobial Peptides Gene of Cotton Verticillium Wilt

Cotton Verticillium wilt which influences the growth of cotton is one of the most dangerous fascicular diseases caused by Verticillium dahliae. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens RS-25 which showed high antibiosis activity to Verticillium dahliae was screened by Wu Cuihong. It was separated and purified a 9 kD protein named A2. Edman degradation showed that 15 amino acids of N-terminal sequences of A2 were ASGGTVGIYGANMRS. The further research was performed based on these works. It was mainly studied the cloning of the mature peptides and whole peptides of the antimicrobial peptides gene of cotton Verticillium wilt and their expression in E.coli and P.pastoris.The protein sequences with 100% homology were found by the program of BLAST on NCBI GenBank database as well as the result of the 16S rDNA sequences of RS-25. The primers of the whole gene of the new antimicrobial peptides were designed. The recombinant plasmid pET-30a-a2q1 was constructed. Then gene a2q1 was sequenced. The result indicated that this gene contained 354 bp nucleotides and encoded 117 amino acids, and the amino acids from 42 to 56 of a2q1 were the same as 15 amino acids of N-terminal of antimicrobial peptides A2 which was separated and purified by Wu. The protein was bigger than the antimicrobial peptides A2. The more 41 amino acids might be the regulatory regions. And the antimicrobial peptides A2 which was separated and purified by Wu may be the mature peptides. The recombinant plasmids pET-30a-a2q1 were transformed into host bacteria of E.coli BL21. SDS-PAGE analysis was performed after being induced by IPTG. The relative molecular weights of the expressed products were 19 kD. The expressed products were purified by Nickel-affinity chromatography column. SDS-PAGE showed that there was a single band at 19 kD. A2Q1 which was cloned and expressed did not show antibiosis activity to Verticillium dahliae by testing. The protein A2Q1 was bigger than the antimicrobial peptides A2. The research will be performed on mature peptides in order to test if the antibiosis activity of protein is destroied by the 41 amino acids and obtain recombinant protein which shows antibiosis activity to Verticillium dahliae.The primers of mature peptides gene were designed. The recombinant plasmids pET-30a-a2c were constructed and transformed into host bacteria E.coli BL21. And the expressed products were purified by Nickel-affinity chromatography column. SDS-PAGE showed that there was a single band at 14 kD. But it did not show antibiosis activity to Verticillium dahliae too. The antimicrobial peptides A2 is glycoprotein. The E.coli expression system did not show the function of ptotein glycosylation. So the recombinant proteins A2Q1 and A2C did not show the antibiosis activity to Verticillium dahliae.Pichia pastoris which shows the function of ptotein glycosylation. So the further research was performed with Pichia pastoris as host. The primers of whole gene of antimicrobial peptides were designed with His tag. The recombinant plasmids pPIC9K-a2q2 were constructed and digested by Sac I, then transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115. And the expressed products were purified by Nickel-affinity chromatography column after being induced by methanol and low temperature. SDS-PAGE showed that there was a single band at 19 kD. And it showed antibiosis activity to Verticillium dahliae. So, the protein A2Q2 could show the antibiosis activity to Verticillium dahliae after being glycosylated, and it was proved as a glycoprotein.In this study, the antimicrobial peptides A2 was cloned and expressed, and it showed antibiosis activity to Verticillium dahliae. It will offer stuff for further research of antimicrobial peptides of cotton Verticillium wilt, and provide a necessary theory and practical foundation for transgenic cotton and the genetic Engineering of cotton disease resistance.

The Problem and Research Existing in the Protection of Intellectual Property in China

The Intellectual property system is a Basic system which respects the creative work and incentive innovation, it’s also a main content which build the socialist country ruled by law and the sincerity society. Building an innovative country, we must strengthen the protection of intellectual property and the importance of citizen awareness of intellectual property rights of cultivation, which has important practical significance for the promotion of the national economy, Health, stability and sustainable development.The paper is based on the protection of intellectual property in china as the research object,combined with the relevant documents of the domestic and international intellectual property protection, it also based on “protection of intellectual property strategy outline in2008″ and intellectual property protection status and advantages comparative analysis in the United States, Japan, the European Union and India.This paper review of the concept, its theoretical origins of intellectual property protection and on the basis of further analysis of the status、the problems and the reasons of China’s intellectual property protection,which described the importance of strengthening the protection of intellectual property rights in China, and proposed in the creation of intellectual property laws rules, China should on the basis of foreign experience in intellectual property protection to strive to play their own initiative, to focus on improving awareness of the whole society of intellectual property protection, legal awareness and Management capabilities of protection of intellectual property,and actively promote the localization and internationalization of intellectual property protection standards.

“The Sensation of Having Learned Something” an Analysis of the Ethical Theme on a Room with a View

Edward Morgan Forster is a prominent novelist in the twentieth century English literature. American critic Lionel Trilling once explicitly pointed out that Forster provided readers with”the sensation of having learned something”. Forster attracted critics’attention as early as his first novel was published. A majority of research in China is confined to his A Passage to India and Howards End from different perspectives; while the research from the ethical perspective on his Italian novel, A Room with a View, can rarely be seen.A Room with a View is called Italian novel by critics. It is a work with rich moral significance, Morality functions as an indispensable part in the figures’characterization. Living in an era of drastic Social changes, Forster deeply felt the spiritual crisis resulted from the drastic vicissitudes of the”structure of feeling”in the Edwardian period. According to Forster, the”undeveloped hearts”of modern English people would undoubtedly result in the English, particularly the English middle-class in an”uncompleted”state. Forster put his whole effort into concerning how to realize the”completed state”of human nature.Ethical literary criticism has attracted Chinese critics’attention in recent years. Ethical literary criticism focuses on ethical, moral and objective review on literature and gives historical dialectical explanation to it. It is a kind of methodology applied to literary criticism, which has to combine literary reading and understanding together and meanwhile to emphasize the Social responsibility and moral obligation of literature as well. Alan Wilde holds the idea that Forster is the preeminent moralist of his age. Morality is one of most important themes in Forster’s works. The social and cultural significance can be revealed more profoundly by the use of ethical literary criticism in analyzing Forster’s A Room with a View.In the background of Raymond Williams’s structure of feeling and in the light of ethical literary criticism, this thesis examines three different kinds of characters in the novel by weaving three moral phenomena:”undeveloped hearts”,”developing hearts”and”developed hearts”. After introducing the background and significance of A Room with a View, this thesis firstly analyzes the”undeveloped hearts”and its typical representatives; it probes into the profound understanding of Forster by analyzing the complicated relationship between his moral anxiety and his personal experience and the historical context in Edwardian times. Secondly it focuses on Forster’s moral expectation with a detailed analysis to the heroine. It will further explore that Forster’s moral expectation is closely related to the”structure of feeling”of his time. Thirdly it centers on Forster’s moral ideals, it further attempts to expound that Forster’s moral ideal is closely related to his liberal-humanism. It makes conclusion that life, freedom and love is Forster’s ethical pursuit of a lifetime. By getting a deep insight into Forster’s moral concern, we can have a better”sensation of having learned something”.

A novel 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazoles compound Yzk-C-22 …

A novel 1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-b][1,3,4]-thiadiazoles compound Yzk-C-22 was synthesized by the state key laboratory of elemento-organic chemistry in Nankai University. The biological activities of this compound were evaluated in this study. Results from the previous biological activities screening indicated that the compound showed certain extent of growth inhibition against fungi tested, but no inducing activity. To further explore the potential of Yzk-C-22 with application, a series of biological activities tests were rationally designed, which contained not only fungicide screeing of 18 species pathogens in vitro, rice blast, cucumber gray mold and tobacco mosaic disease in vivo, but also the impact to the infection process and the multiple growth stages of the M. Grisea during the infection cycle in vitro, using the TDL, BTH, Virazole and Azoxystrobin as the positive control.In vitro, the results demonstrated that the Yzk-C-22 at 50μg/ml was efficient against the 18 species of ubiquitous plant pathogenic fungi, which belong to the Ascomycotina (pyrenomycetes, discomycetes, loculoascomycetes, pyricularia grisea), Deuter omycotina (Alternaria spp, Cercospor spp, Botrytis spp, Thizoctonia, Verticillium sp) and Basidiomycetes (Thanatephorus), Oomycetes (Phytophthora).With the impact to the infection process and the multiple growth stages of the M. Grisea during the infection cycle in vitro, we concluded the efficacy of compound Yzk-C-22 was excellent that it could significantly inhibited the mycelium growth, spore germination, germ tube elongation of M.grisea and the production of melanin. Moreover, the compound Yzk-C-22 showed outstanding anti-fungi activity against Magnaporthe grisea, and inhibition of the sporulation. The microscope illustrated that compound Yzk-C-22 caused a series of marked morphology and structural alterations of hyphae, such as the serious distortion, wavy growth and appearance of the protoplasm group on the top of the hyphae.The laboratory study in vivo showed that the protective, curative and inactivation efficacies of compound Yzk-C-22 are great, using tobacco half leaf method. Whereas, it could reduced the damage caused by rice blast (ascomycetes), cucumber gray mold (ascomycetes) and tobacco mosaic virus (plant virus), however, the efficacies of compound Yzk-C-22 were lower than those of Azoxystrobin. The results demonstrated that the application of compound Yzk-C-22 could not control the Rice blast, cucumber gray mold and tobacco mosaic virus.All studies showed that, compound Yzk-C-22 was a novel compound with high anti-fungi activity, board spectrum, and certain extent protective, curative and inactivation efficacies against rice blast, cucumber gray mold and tobacco mosaic virus. Though its efficacies are not as good as those of Azoxystrobin, compound Yzk-C-22 is still worth of further study.

Study on Local Government Decision-making Procedure

Decision-making is the primary link of the supply of public goods, the implementation of effective Management of Local government, which runs through the whole process in the administration, whether decision-making is success or not decisides the success or failure of the of government Management. With the deepening of market economy, the diversification of the main of the community interests, local governments face the decision-making environment has become increasingly complex and difficult growing. At the same time, the Anomie of decision-making power, or abuse also must be controlled to the point. In this paper, the “decision-making process of local government” as a topics to proposide to study .This paper adopted “positivism” research Philosophy, the use of combination of methods with comparition and case studies, on the basis of literature studying to construt a analytical framework of theory that ” decision-making as the central “of decision-making process. The use of case studies will from the reality of the classic case-control framework for theoretical analysis to identify the gaps, come to the conclusion of the stud.This paper includes five chapters:The first chapter.the Introduction. Paper is mainly on the reasons for the choice, topics theory and practical significance, literature review and research design.Chapter II of the paper is to clarify Basic concepts.ChapterIII on the analysis of the factors of impacting decision-makingprocess of local government.ChapterIV on building the system of the local government decision-making process .This is the main part of the article is where the creativity of the article. First of all,by analysis ,comparison and verification of theoretical model on domestic and foreign policy analysis systematicly, select several of our decisions that have a direct reference of the model; Secondly, the different domestic and foreign scholars on the Basic steps of the decision-making process, in combination with decision-making environment made the normal procedure of decision-making local government.Finally,based on Dunn’s “problem-centered” model of policy analysis constructing of system model on local government decision-making process .Chapter V is empirical analysis and conclusion. This section on actuality analysis of the local government decision-making process of system construction, combined with a classic, both positive and negative cases, summed up and abstract general problems and issues with regard to current local government decision-making process and made the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions.

Purpose:To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of angina pectori…

Purpose:To observe the clinical therapeutic effect of angina pectoris transdermal patche ,and investigate the mechanism.Mthod::100 patients with stable angina pectoris ,which syndrome of blood stasis with Qi false in Traditional Chinese Medicine, were randomly divided into three groups. Treatment group:routine west medicine therapy with angina pectoris transdermal patch, Control groupⅠ: routine west medicine therapy with Nitroglycerin transdermal patch, Control groupⅡ: routine west medicine therapy The angina pectoris plaster role in the points of zusanli,neiguan,xinshu,dan zhong, which bilater,1 patch on 1 acupiont for one treatment, lasting 6-8 hour once a day, the treatments courses were taken 2 weeks. To observe the therapeutic effect, check the electrocardiogram, text the CRP levels before and after the treatments and compare the curative effect among the three groups.Results:The angina pectoris transdermal patch can effectively reduce the number of angina attacks, reduce the onset time, relieve pain, reduce the dosage of nitroglycerin, improve the clinical symptom,the appearance of electrocardiogram, reduce the CRP levels and inhibit the inflammatory response, The results show that there is no difference between the control groupⅠandⅡ,and the effects of control group are better than the two. No side effects were found among the patients.Conclusion:The effects of the angina pectoris transdermal patch are effective and the mechanism may be concerned with the inhibition of inflammatory response.

The Study on Biomarkers of Workers Exposed to Acrylamide

Acrylamide(Acrylamide, ACR), An important raw material for chemical industry, is used worldwide to synthesize polyacrylamide(PACR). PACR has found numerous applications as a soil conditioner, in wastewater treatment, in the cosmetic, paper, and textile industries, and in the laboratory as a solid support for the separation of proteins by electrophoresis. In addition, ACR can be produced when cooking foods which are rich in starch (such as potatoes and corn) in high temperature(above120℃). ACR can be absorbed through respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, skin, mucous membranes and a variety of ways in which the gastrointestinal absorption rapidity is the fastest, skin contact poisoning is the most common.In addition,experiments on mammalian cells in vitro and in vivo indicate that ACR have neurotoxicity,reproductive toxicity, embryonic developmental toxicity and genetic toxicity, but due to the lack of epidemiological data only neurotoxicity in the human body has been verified up to now.In recent years, acute and chronic poisoning caused by occupational exposure to ACR often occurs. Looking for specific biomarkers of ACR can help to accurately evaluate the level of workers’exposure, prevent the workers from acute or chronic ACR intoxication. The purpose of this project is to research the correlation between the exposure to ACR and the indicators of biological materials to find biomarkers to evaluate occupational exposure and effect exposed to ACR.ObjectiveInvestigate individual exposure levels, career-related factors and personal circumstances of the workers exposed to ACR, determine their urine APC, serum Ca2+and PKC content,and explore the relationship between the individual exposure and biological indicators of the workers exposed to ACR and find early indicators of biological monitoring.Objects and Methods1. The object choice of the study: this study choosed138workers in an ACR manufacturer including101workers exposed to ACR and37control workers unexposed to ACR.2. The occupational Health survey: consulting factory material and making questionnaire survey to learn the production process, the factory workers career related factors and personal Basic situation.3. Sample collection:the air ACR concentration samples were collected according to the national standard “workplace harmful substances in the air monitoring sampling norms”(GBZ159-2004), using individual air sampler, connected silica gel glass; The skin ACR concentration samples were collected by wiping the skin with distilled water wetted Medical tampon; Urine samples were collected in polyethylene plastic bottles; Blood samples(workers’forearm venous blood) were collected by disposable no additive vacuum blood collection tube.4. The determination of the samples:the air ACR concentration and workers’skin ACR concentration was determined by gas chromatography; the urine APC concentration of workers was determined by visible spectrophotometry; The serum Ca2+concentration was determined by Ca2+kit(methyl thymol blue method); The serum PKC concentration was determined by ELISA kit; Analyze and investigate the relationship between the levels of exposure and the relevant biological indicators.5. The data processing and statistical analysis:the data were input into Word text material database and Excel data material database, and were analyzed by SPSS16.0application software. Test of normality and homogeneity test of variances were used to examine the data, oneway analysis of variance, simple linear correlation analysis and multiple regression analysis were used to study the relationship between biological indicators. Results1. The linear range of the gas chromatography is0.10~2.0μg/ml, the standard curve equation is y=3186918.408x+4388.271, the correlation coefficient is0.9997,the detection limit is1.4×10-5μg/ml, the retention time is1.633min.2. The standard curve equation of free sulfhydryl compound in the method of spectrophotometry is y=2.375×-0.003, the correlation coefficient is0.998, the detection limit is0.002mmol/L; the standard curve equation of total sulfhydryl compound is y=1.611x+0.000, the correlation coefficient is0.999, the detection limit is0.01mmol/L.3. The air ACR concentration of exposed group is0.040±0.015mg/m3, the air ACR concentration of control group did not detect ACR; The skin ACR concentration of exposed group is2.003±0.961μg, the skin ACR concentration of control group did not detect ACR.4. The concentration of workers’urine APC in ACR exposed group and control group is0.65±0.22mmol/L and0.54±0.18mmol/L, it’s higher in ACR exposed group than that in control group(P<0.05); the concentration of workers’serum Ca2+in ACR exposed group and control group is2.18±0.15mmol/L and2.32±0.33mmol/L, it’s lower in ACR exposed group than that in control group(P<0.05); the concentration of workers’serum PKC in ACR exposed group and control group is235.06±93.08nmol/L and194.73±98.98nmol/L, it’s higher in ACR exposed group than that in control group(P<0.05).5. The result of simple linear correlation analysis shows that the concentration of workers’urine APC and workers’serum PKC are positively correlated with the concentration of workers’skin ACR(P<0.01); the concentration of workers’serum Ca2+are negatively correlated with the concentration of workers’skin ACR(P<0.01).6. The result of multiple regression analysis shows that among the factors which effect the urine APC, serum Ca2+and PKC concentration, the concentration of workers’skin ACR concentration entered into the equation. Conclusions1. ACR exposure can effect the urine APC, serum Ca2+ and PKC concentration of workers.2. The variation of workers’urine APC, serum Ca2+ and PKC may be caused by the absorbtion of ACR though the skin.3. Workers’urine APC,serum Ca2+ and PKC may be the biomarkers exposed to ACR.4. The air ACR concentration and the workers’ skin ACR concentration was determined by capillary column gas chromatograph method,the methed is efficient, fast and of good separation effect.